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Meetings HPS of Paris Diderot

Seminar Master Lophiss Paris Diderot / Research SPHERE UMR 7219.

Organisation :
Nadine De Courtenay and Ivahn Smadja (Univ. paris Diderot, SPHERE).

Archives : 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17

PROGRAM 2017-2018
Sessions on Fridays, 4:15 p.m.–6:15 p.m.
University Paris Diderot, Building Halle aux Farines, Esplanade Pierre Vidal-Naquet / rue Françoise Dolto - 75013 Paris.
Campus map.

November 10, Room 234C, Halle aux farines

The Philosopher : A History of Six Types
(Princeton University Press, 2017)

Presented by the author : Justin E. H. Smith (University Paris Diderot, SPHERE)
Followed by a general discussion introduced by David Rabouin.

Abstract :
What would the global history of philosophy look like if it were told not as a story of ideas but as a series of job descriptions—ones that might have been used to fill the position of philosopher at different times and places over the past 2,500 years ? The Philosopher does just that, providing a new way of looking at the history of philosophy by bringing to life six kinds of figures who have occupied the role of philosopher in a wide range of societies around the world over the millennia—the Natural Philosopher, the Sage, the Gadfly, the Ascetic, the Mandarin, and the Courtier. The result is at once an unconventional introduction to the global history of philosophy and an original exploration of what philosophy has been—and perhaps could be again.
By uncovering forgotten or neglected philosophical job descriptions, the book reveals that philosophy is a universal activity, much broader—and more gender inclusive—than we normally think today. In doing so, The Philosopher challenges us to reconsider our idea of what philosophers can do and what counts as philosophy.

December 1rst, Room 470E, Halle aux farines

Savoir médical, maladie et philosophie (XVIIIe-XXe siècles) : Actualité de la pensée de Roselyne Rey
(Presses Universitaires de Paris-Sorbonne, 2016)

Presented by one of the editors : Éric Hamraoui (Conservatoire national des arts et métiers)

Abstract :
Ce livre s’interroge sur le rôle joué par les dictionnaires depuis le XVIIIe siècle, aussi bien au niveau de la transmission et de l’invention du savoir médical que de la transformation du regard porté sur la réalité institutionnelle et humaine de l’activité de soin et de l’action thérapeutique. Au-delà de la volonté d’élaborer la doctrine médicale officielle d’une époque, la publication des dictionnaires devient l’occasion de débats parfois âpres entre les tenants des différentes doctrines ou théories médicales. Mais ces textes sont non seulement un creuset d’invention théorique et d’appréciation des mutations à l’oeuvre dans la pensée thérapeutique au tournant des XVIIIe et XIXe siècles, mais également l’instrument d’une quête de définition des modalités optimales de l’application des remèdes et le foyer opérateur de révisions terminologiques. Du point de vue de l’histoire des idées, Savoir médical, maladie et philosophie montre en quoi la pensée des philosophes - matérialistes, vitalistes, sensualistes, etc. -, tout en fournissant les cadres d’élaboration de la pensée médicale de l’époque, se trouve en retour influencée, voire transformée par celle-ci, comme dans l’Idéologie. Dans la mesure où les auteurs du présent ouvrage opèrent de fréquents renvois à l’oeuvre de Roselyne Rey (1951-1995), ouvrant un vaste champ de recherche à la croisée de l’histoire des sciences de la vie, de la médecine, de l’histoire des idées et de la pensée philosophique, celui-ci pourrait constituer un premier pas destiné à structurer ce domaine et susciter son exploration future.

February 2, 2018, Room tba

Individuals Accross the Sciences
(Oxford University Press, 2015)

Presented by the editors : Alexandre Guay (Université catholique de Louvain) & Thomas Pradeu (CNRS, CIRID)

Abstract :
What are individuals ? How can they be identified ? These are crucial questions for philosophers and scientists alike. Criteria of individuality seem to differ markedly between metaphysics and the empirical sciences - and this might well explain why no work has hitherto attempted to relate the contributions of metaphysics, physics and biology on this question. This timely volume brings together various strands of research into ’individuality’, examining how different sciences handle the issue, and reflecting on how this scientific work relates to metaphysical concerns. The collection makes a major contribution to clarifying and overcoming obstacles to the construction of a general conception of the individual adequate for both physics and biology, and perhaps even beyond.

March 2, Room tba

Iris Runge. A Life at the Crossroads of Mathematics, Science, and Industry
(Springer Basel, 2012)

Presented by the author : Renate Tobies (Institut für Geschichte der Medezin, Naturwissenschaften und Technik, Jena)

This presentation will be followed by a general discussion opened by Marie-Josée Durand-Richard where the reflections of researchers and students interested in different disciplines, historical periods and approaches can intersect.

Abstract :
This book concerns the origins of mathematical problem solving at the internationally active Osram and Telefunken Corporations during the golden years of broadcasting and electron tube research. The woman scientist Iris Runge, who received an interdisciplinary education at the University of Göttingen, was long employed as the sole mathematical authority at these companies in Berlin. It will be shown how mathematical connections were made between statistics and quality control, and between physical-chemical models and the actual problems of mass production. The organization of industrial laboratories, the relationship between theoretical and experimental work, and the role of mathematicians in these settings will also be explained. By investigating the social, economic, and political conditions that unfolded from the time of the German Empire until the end of the Second World War, the book hopes to build a bridge between specialized fields – mathematics and engineering – and the general culture of a particular era. It hopes, furthermore, to build a bridge between the history of science and industry, on the one hand, and the fields of Gender and Women’s Studies on the other. Finally, by examining the life and work of numerous industrial researchers, insight will be offered into the conditions that enabled a woman to achieve a prominent professional position during a time when women were typically excluded from the scientific workforce.

April 6, Room tba
Introduction à la philosophie des sciences médicales
(Hermann, 2017).

Presented by the author : Maël Lemoine (University of Tours)

This presentation will be followed by a general discussion opened by Céline Lefève where the reflections of researchers and students interested in different disciplines, historical periods and approaches can intersect.

Abstract :
In France, the epistemology of medicine is easily reduced to the study of Canguilhem’s masterly essay, The Normal and the Pathological. However, this book published more than seventy years ago no longer reflects the state of contemporary medical sciences, nor that of the debates pursued by philosophers of science since. This book, the first of its kind in the French language, aims to introduce the reader to the philosophy of medical sciences. His ten chapters will introduce the reader to the debates that are agitating him, without the need for prior philosophical or medical knowledge. It responds at the same time to the request of doctors in search of a philosophy which speaks to them of their discipline and their practices, and philosophers in search of a guide in this field fragmented and dominated by the philosophy of English expression .